Originally published in Volume 42 Issue 2 of Artificial Organs, 13 February 2018
It was July 1956 and I was ready to start a research fellowship at Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF) in Cleveland, OH under Dr. Willem Kolff (Fig. 1). As a Japanese exchange fellow, I was excited but scared to be working with such a prominent researcher. In 1944, he had invented the first clinically successful rotating drum artificial kidney (RDK) 1 (Fig. 2).