Explore the timeline of the Center
Artificial Organs is created and becomes the official journal of the newly established International Society for Artificial Organs (ISAO).
1st ISAO Anniversary Recognition Event in Cleveland, Ohio. Cleveland Award created and first awards bestowed.
Steering Committees and Board of Trustees formed to develop and implement plans for the International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation (ICAOT). Fund raising begun and historical artifacts continued to be collected.
International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation opened in the former White Mansion at 8937 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio.
In March, Dr. Takehiko Kudo became the first Distinguished Scholar of the International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.
In May, the first museum and information center devoted to the past, present, and future story of artificial organs and transplantation opened.
Management of the Center transferred from Cleveland, Ohio based business community to the International Society for Artificial Organs.
Artificial Heart Gallery was created shortly after the total artificial heart was implanted in Dr. Barney Clark. The Center organized an exhibit featuring 30 artificial heart prototypes from its collection including the Kolff-Jarvik-7 with a media reception.
First symposium on Plasmapheresis: Therapeutic Applications and New Techniques and Exhibit in Cleveland, Ohio.
Unique course first offered to junior and senior high school students jointly by the Cleveland Health Education Museum and the International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.
Second Plasmapheresis Symposium and Exhibit in Cleveland, Ohio.
Plans initiated for growth of the Center.
Major exhibit was presented at the 4th Congress of the International Center for Artificial Organs (ISAO) in Kyoto, Japan.
Center presented its newest exhibit on vascular grafts at the “Vascular Graft Update: Safety and Performance Symposium” in Williamsburg, Virginia.
Third International Symposium on Therapeutic Apheresis and Exhibit in Cleveland, Ohio.
Center exhibited and presented an institutional exhibit at the 30th annual meeting of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs in Washington, D.C.
Apheresis Registry: First Pilot Study initial results reported.
Peripheral Circulatory Assist Device (PCAD) Registry initiated.
Fund raising challenge for those outside of Cleveland.
Apheresis Registry: Second Pilot initiated.
Technology Transfer Program: Nikkiso Co., Ltd.
Center exhibited and presented its exhibits and including that on vascular grafts at the 31st annual meeting of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs in Atlanta, Georgia.
Center presented an historical exhibit at 5th ISAO Congress in Chicago, Illinois.
An historical exhibition of the Center’s collection of circulatory assist devices and vascular prostheses was presented at the 12th Annual Meeting of the Society of Biomaterials in conjunction with the 18th International Biomaterials Symposium in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Traveling exhibit of the Center presented at the 32nd Annual American Society for Artificial Internal Organs in Disneyland, Anaheim, California.
Exhibit presented at the International Plastics Exposition in Cleveland, Ohio.
Co-sponsored the International Symposium on Stabilized Hemoglobin held in Tokyo, Japan.
Center exhibited at the 6th ISAO Congress in Munich, Germany.
Center endorses the Hokkaido International Medical and Industrial Complex City (HIMEX).
Center participated in an exhibition for the 30th Anniversary celebration of open heart surgery held at St. Luke’s Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio.
Center exhibited at the 7th ISAO Congress in Hokkaido, Japan.
Center’s artificial heart collection on tour with “Bionics and Transplants: The World of Replacement Medicine” sponsored by the Science Museum of Minnesota and Medtronic.
Joint exhibit with the Cleveland Health Museum on “People Parts: The History of Artificial Organs and Implants”.
The Center loaned items to the Kredietbank’s exhibit “Technobiotics” in Antwerp, Belgium.
The Center loaned a group of hearts for the Joint Meeting of the 67th Annual Meeting of the Medical Instrument Society and the Okayama Medical Fair, Okayama, Japan.
Exhibit at World Apheresis Association Meeting in Houston, Texas.
Center’s exhibits were on exhibition in a limited format and storage.
The Center secured a planning grant from the Cleveland Foundation.
The Center’s museum closed due to space reallocations by the owners and put into storage.
Center’s museum artifacts moved to Houston, Texas.
Center’s collection integrated into the International Center for Medical Technologies (ICMT) at the Hermann Memorial Hospital.
After the passing of Dr. Yukihiko Nosé, the Center’s collection and additions made to it at ICMT were placed in storage
Written history of the Center
On the one year anniversary of the founding of the International Society for Artificial Organs (ISAO) in 1977 and in recognition of the establishing the ISAO headquarters in Cleveland, Ohio USA several local groups, particularly the Greater Cleveland Growth Association (Chairman, John A. Gelbach), University Circle, Inc. (Chairman, William C. Treuhaft), the Cleveland Academy of Medicine (President, Robert J. White, M.D, Ph.D.), and the Cleveland Foundation (Director, Homer Wadsworth), got together to plan a meaningful anniversary project for the Society (Artificial Organs Vol 3, No. 1, 1979, pp. 3-5). Program chairmen were Robert D. McCreery (President, H.L. McCreery & Son, Inc.) and Charles E. Spahr (Chief Executive Officer, Standard Oil Company of Ohio. In addition, Mr. Lewis I. Schwartz and Mr. Frank Spring of University Circle, Inc., worked with representatives from ten local medical institutions in organizing this event. The High Technology Task Force of the Greater Cleveland Growth Association (Chairman, Janes Burnett, NASA Lewis Research Center) was instrumental in the planning of the project. The anniversary program was held in Cleveland on December 7 and 8, 1978. Overwhelming support was given by the civic, industrial, financial, educational and medical communities in Cleveland. Leading off was an educational colloquium held in Cleveland’s Allen Memorial Medical Library auditorium featuring presentations and a panel discussion before an audience of students, medical practitioners and interested lay persons sponsored by the Medical Library Association. The title of the colloquium was “Artificial Organs: An Historical Perspective and Cleveland’s Contribution”. The speakers were Patrick McBride (Travenol Laboratories, Inc.), Leonard T. Skeggs, M.D. (Veterans Administration Hospital, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine), George H. A. Clowes, M.D. (Harvard Medical School), Fredrick S. Cross, M.D. (St. Luke’s Hospital, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine), Yukihiko Nosé, M.D. Ph.D. (Cleveland Clinic), Robert M. Pierson (Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.), and Robert J. White, M.D., Ph.D. (Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine). Panel discussions were moderated by Robert A. Lang of the Academy of Medicine of Cleveland. The highlight of the Anniversary Program took place on the evening of December 7 as the Society hosted more than 350 attendees at a festive dinner to salute renowned pioneers in the field of artificial organs who had worked in Cleveland and to recognize their outstanding contributions to the research and development of artificial organs. With grants from the Cleveland Foundation and the Greater Cleveland Growth Association, the Society inaugurated the presentation of its Cleveland Award, named in honor of the headquarter city. (See discussion on the Cleveland Award). This event took place at the Crawford Auto-Aviation Museum. The museum was transformed into a unique exhibition of historic and current artificial organs technology through the cooperation of the local Howard Dittrick Museum of Historical Medicine and the Cleveland Health Educational Museum, and with support of Travenol Laboratories, Inc. and the Smithsonian Institute, Washington D.C., which lent exhibit materials. The dinner program itself, over which M. Brock Weir, Chairman of Cleveland Trust Bank, presided as emcee, featured an address by Robert J. White, M.D., Ph.D., on “Cleveland’s Stake in Artificial Organs”. The Cleveland Awards were presented by Dr. Adrian Kantrowitz, First Vice-President of ISAO. The following were the first recipients of the Cleveland Awards: George H.A. Clowes, M.D., for development and clinical application of the plate-type membrane oxygenator; Earle B. Kay, M.D., Fredrick S. Cross M.D. and Richard D. Jones, Ph.D. for the development and clinical application of the disc-type oxygenator; Willem J. Kolff, M.D., Ph.D., for pioneering use of hemodialysis as a clinical procedure, development of the total heart replacement on an experimental basis, and other significant contributions to the field of artificial organs; Leonard T. Skeggs, Jr. Ph.D. and Jack R. Leonards, M.D. (posthumously) for development of the first practical and safe plate-type artificial kidney; Pemko, Inc. for engineering design and development of highly reliable heart-lung bypass apparatus; and TRW, Inc. for engineering design and fabrication of the world’s first totally implantable artificial heart. On December 8, Dr. Adrian Kantrowitz provided a perspective on the field to a broad audience as he addressed the Cleveland City Club Forum which was broadcast over local radio. The International Society for Artificial Organs was pleased to receive the overwhelming support from the local community the Cleveland Award should not be a one-time event. It was planned that it should be continued with recipients selected from the international community. Based on the recommendations of the ISAO Board of Trustees, the Cleveland Award Committee members will give the Cleveland award to individuals who have made outstanding contributions to the advancement of artificial organs research, development, or application.
The Center was founded in 1979. How did this come about? To a large extent the development and growth of artificial organs were mirrored in the history of the city of Cleveland (Artificial Organs, Vol. 6, No. 1, February 1982 pp. 17-21) A distinguished group of Clevelanders from both the business and academic communities organized the International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation into an international disciplinary institution serving the international as well as the local scientific communities. Special tribute and gratitude is given to those initial Board of Trustee Members. Charles E. Spahr, then retired chairman of the Board of The Standard Oil Company (Ohio) was Chairman of the Board. Mr. Spahr had completed the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and initiated the development of Alaska’s Prudhoe Bay oil field. Walter H. Pritchard, Trustee Member, served in various capacities at the University Hospitals of Cleveland and Case Western Reserve University. Dudley J. Taw, Trustee Member, was Chairman of the Board of the East Ohio Gas Company and a director of its parent firm, Consolidated Natural Gas Company. Claude M. Blair, Trustee Member, was retired Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the National City Corporation. Dr. Victor Vertes, Trustee Member, was affiliated with Mt. Sinai Hospital and Case Western Reserve University. E. Mandell de Windt, Trustee Member, was Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Eaton corporation. John C. Dowd, Trustee Member, was Partner of the law firm Squire, Sanders and Dempsey. Dr. Yukihiko Nosé, Trustee Member, was Secretary-Treasurer of the International Society for Artificial Organs (ISAO). Dr. Robert J. White, Trustee Member, was internationally known for his work in clinical brain surgery and experimental work of the nervous system. He was the first to isolate the brain in experimental animals and keeping it alive outside the body. He was Professor and Co-Chairman of Neurosurgery at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and Director of the Department Neurosurgery and the Brain Research Laboratory at the Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital.
In 1980, the Center began its fund-raising campaign to support its programs over a three-year period (Artificial Organs, Vol 4. No. 4, 1980, p. 263). At a luncheon held for 35 Cleveland area corporate representatives to inform them about the Center and its activities $184,000 was committed by the corporations alone. In addition, grant applications were submitted to the George Gund Foundation and the Cleveland Foundation to match the monies raised by the corporations. Because of the complexities involved in designing exhibits on artificial organs for the general public and problems in adapting the then present mansion-home to exhibits of a highly technical nature, the Center looked to contracting for an exhibits design consultant to work with the staff and advisors to design the exhibits and the exhibit space for a smooth traffic flow, continuity of the story line, and standardization of the appearance of the entire exhibit area. At that time also, the search had begun to find a fulltime director. During this time donations of hardware and literature had increased dramatically from both international and domestic sources.
In March 1981 Dr. Takehiko Kudo became the first Distinguished Scholar of the International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation (ICAOT) (Artificial Organs Vol 5, No. 3, 1981, p. 225). Dr. Kudo is a founding member of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs. Since 1956, he has been actively involved in the research and development of heart valves, oxygenators, and circulatory assist devices. As a member of the team working with Dr. Shinoi in Japan, he assisted at the first successful lung transplants.
On May 9, 1981 a preview of the museum of the International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation (ICAOT) was held at the Center’s headquarters in Cleveland, Ohio USA (Artificial Organs, Vol 5, No. 2, 1981, pp. 100-102). Highlighted in the preview was the Center’s museum introducing the history and development of artificial organs and high technology areas in the field of artificial organs and transplantation. The Center was designed to serve as a not-for-profit organization devoted to the collection, preservation, and display of materials that illustrate the development of the two biomedical fields described in its name. The ICAOT will serve as a museum and as an educational center for physicians, scientists, engineers, students, and the lay public interested in biomedical engineering activities and in the development of new concepts for medical use. The world-wide educational/information center is designed for the medical, scientific, and industrial artificial organs and transplantation communities. This preview concentrated on artificial organs and transplantation focusing on three specific areas with the exhibition divided into three main galleries: Kidney, Cardiovascular, and Transplantation and Implantation. The Kidney Gallery featured the historical development of the artificial kidney from Abel’s vivi-diffusion apparatus to the then present-day solute removal techniques. The focus was on the function and concept of artificial kidney devices as exemplified by hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. One section was devoted to the new and alternative methods of solute removal as represented by advances in sorbent systems, hemofiltration, and plasmapheresis. Methods of blood assess were also shown. The role of the oxygenator in the development of modern medicine and surgery was emphasized in the Cardiovascular Gallery. Early prototypes of disc, film, and membrane oxygenators were on display. One section of the Cardiovascular Gallery was devoted to blood pump development and included prototypes of the artificial heart, left ventricular assist devices, centrifugal pumps, and the intra-aortic balloon pump. Also, there was a nuclear-powered one developed by the Atomic Energy Commission over 10 years before but never used. Pacemakers and valves, both synthetic and natural tissue, were also included. The Transplantation and Implantation Gallery introduced the early concepts concerning organ preservation which lead to our present knowledge of tissue typing and organ transplantation. Prosthetic implant materials such as the hip, knee and shoulder prosthesis, silicone implant materials, and valves were shown. A series featured a profile of historical personalities and, at that time, presented the works of Dr. Alexis Carrell. The role of lymphocytes in tissue typing and various organ preservation methods were explained and displayed.
In the spring of 1982 the Management to the Center transferred from Cleveland, Ohio based business community to the International Society for Artificial Organs. The Cleveland business members remained as an Advisory Committee while the new Board and Officers were named: Adrian Kantrowitz as Chairman of the Board of Trustees, Charles E. Spahr as Honorary Chairman of the Board of Trustees, Horst Klinkmann as Vice Chairman of the Board of Trustees, Yukihiko Nosé as Trustee and Treasurer and Vice President and Chief Operating Officer, Paul S. Malchesky as Trustee and Secretary, Kazuhiko Atsumi as Trustee and Japanese Representative, Jean-Louis Funck-Brentano as Trustee and European Representative, and Victor Vertes as Trustee and US Representive (Artificial Organs, Vol 6, No. 4, 1982, pp. 355-356). In addition, a Cleveland Steering Committee and International Scientific Council was announced.
In 1982, the Center initiated a unique new course jointly with the Cleveland Health Education Museum introducing junior and senior high school students to the exciting advances in medical replacement technology (Artificial Organs Vol 7, No. 1, 1983, p. 3). Also, in 1982, in a response to public interest in the total artificial heart that followed the first permanent implantation of such a device, the Center organized an exhibit featuring 30 artificial heart prototypes from the Center’s collection (Artificial Organs Vol 7, No. 2, 1983, pp.152-153). A Kolff-Jarvic-7, obtained by the courtesy of the University of Utah, was the highlight of the exhibit which opened with a media reception. Dr. Donald Olsen, Director of the Artificial Heart Research Program at the University of Utah, was present to describe the accomplishments of his staff, culminating in the December 2, 1982, implantation of a total artificial heart into Dr. Barney Clark. Dr. Adrian Kantrowitz, ICAOT Board President, and other scientists working in the field of artificial hearts also were present to discuss the implications of artificial heart research with members of the media.
On April 3-4, 1982 a symposium, Plasmapheresis Therapeutic Applications and New Techniques, sponsored by the ISAO was held at the Clinic Inn, Cleveland, Ohio USA (Artificial Organs Vol 6, No. 2, 1982, p. 122 and Artificial Organs, Vol 6, No. 3, 1982, pp. 253-255). A special exhibition at the Center was organized showing the development of plasmapheresis as a therapeutic intervention in disease from ancient times to the present. In conjunction with the exhibit and symposium, a commemorative booklet entitled Plasmapheresis: Historical Perspective, Therapeutic Applications and New Techniques, edited by Helen Kambic and Yukihiko Nosé, was produced. Published simultaneously was the first publication of the ICAOT compiled with the help of the informational and computer facilities of the Charles E. Spahr Information Center at ICAOT. This publication, Topics in Plasmapheresis: A bibliography of Therapeutic Applications and New Techniques, edited by Takahashi Horiuchi, Helen Kambic, Setsuo Takatani, and Yukihiko Nosé, comprises a literature review and reference list of all relevant papers published in the field from 1966 to 1981. Both booklets were distributed to quests and participants at the symposium.
Starting in October 1982 a unique course, jointly offered by the Cleveland Health Education Museum and the International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation, introduced junior and senior high school students to the exciting advances in medical replacement technology (Artificial Organs Vol 7, No. 1, 1983, p. 3). The 40-minute course featured multimedia learning experiences, opportunities to see, touch, and work artificial organ prototypes, and to see models developed by pioneer scientists in the field of biomedical engineering. The course was taught in a museum-classroom-lab at the Center, located on the grounds of the Health Museum.
On April 25-26, 1983 Plasmapheresis Symposium was held in Cleveland at the Hollenden House (Artificial Organs Vol 7, No. 2, 1983, pp. 152-153). The publications : Plasmapheresis: Historical Perspective, Therapeutic Applications and New Techniques and Topics in Plasmapheresis: A bibliography of Therapeutic Applications and New Techniques were revised and published under the direction of Helen Kambic. The exhibit, prepared with the help of 10 corporate sponsors, expanded the Center’s exhibition devoted to plasmapheresis by 300% (Artificial Organs Vol 7, No. 3, 1983, p. 294). Following this symposium, the Center participated in the annual meeting of the American Society of Artificial Internal Organs held in Toronto, Canada April 27-30. The Center’s exhibit was assembled under the direction of Dr. Eric K. Olsen, Director of Educational Programs, and concentrated on the history of the artificial heart and heart assist devices.
In mid-1983, after four years since the Center’s establishment Dr. Olgierd Lindan, Scientific Director and Administrator of the Center, outlined the Center’s need for growth and expansion to expand its space from its leased and converted space, to grow its archives into a comprehensive information center, to expand its display and storage space, and to add conference rooms and an auditorium to expand its educational activities (Artificial Organs, Vol 7, No. 4, 1983, p.399).
The Center presented a major exhibit in November 1983 at the Fourth Congress of the International Society for Artificial Organs (ISAO) in Kyoto, Japan (Artificial Organs Vol 8. No. 1, 1984, pp. 8-9). In addition to highlighting the activities of the Center, the exhibit featured the historical development of artificial hearts and left heart assist devices, and the concept of blood purification, which led to development of the artificial kidney and plasmapheresis. To complete the Center’s extensive display of historical medical hardware and descriptive panels, several exhibit panels and other historical artificial organs was provided by Senko Medical Instruments Manufacturing Co., Ltd., and the Institute of Medical Electronics at Tokyo University. The total exhibit was complimented by a guide booklet prepared in English and Japanese text by Mr. Yoshio Aoki, President of Senko Medical, and Dr. Takehiro Kudo, Director of Hoyo Hospital in Japan. Mr. Aoki and Dr. Kudo also designed the souvenir men’s ties and women’s scarves which featured the ISAO and ICAOT logos. These items were manufactured by Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd., and were presented to congress participants visiting the exhibit. Over 850 visitors toured the exhibit during the Congress. Those visitors who had seen the ICAOT exhibit presented at the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs meeting earlier that year in Toronto, Canada, were particularly impressed with the improvements and expansion of the Center’s traveling exhibit. Parts of this exhibit will be mounted as a temporary display at the Center’s museum when the exhibit is not being used at scientific meetings. Special thanks were extended to Dr. Mitsuru Suzuki of Tokyo Tokatsu Clinic for funding of the Center’s exhibit design and construction costs, and also to Senko Medical and Mitsubishi International for their close personal attention to transportation, set-up, and staffing of the exhibit. To publicize its recently developed collection of vascular grafts, the Center presented its newest exhibit at the symposium, “Vascular Graft Update: Safety and Performance “ in November 1984 in Williamsburg, Virginia USA. (Artificial Organs, Vol 9, No. 1, 1985, pp. 5-6). The symposium was sponsored by the Center, the Food and Drug Administration, the Department of Health and Human Services, and the American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM). The Center’s exhibit outlined the history of vascular replacement and featured an array of biological and synthetic grafts from researchers and manufacturers in the field including Denton A. Cooley, Michael E. DeBakey, W. Sterling Edwards, Charles A. Hufnagel, Lester R. Sauvage, and S. Adam Wesolow. Construction and preservation of the exhibit was supported by W. L. Gore and Associates, Inc. and IMPRA, Inc.
For the 6-month period from July through December 1983, the Center welcomed more than 2,850 visitors to its exhibits in Cleveland. Just over half of these were participants in classes organized in conjunction with the Cleveland Health Education Museum for students in local schools.
Based on the historical items collected in conjunction with the IV ISAO meeting in Kyoto, Japan in February 1984 the exhibit panels which described the historical development of the artificial heart were integrated with the materials already in place in the Center’s “Heart Room” and the exhibit reopened to the public on March 3, 1984 (Artificial Organs Vol 8, No. 2, 1984, pp. 139-140). In 1984 three new programs were instituted through the Charles E. Spahr Information Center with ICAOT. Through a grant from the John P. Murphy Foundation of Cleveland, the Center was able to employ a full-time person to perform cataloguing and reference work on the books, periodicals, and ephemera collected and to conduct computer data-base searches and compile bibliographies for publication. Under the direction of Dr. Paul S. Malchesky of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, the Center began work on a world-wide registry relating to therapeutic apheresis treatments. A registry pretest was conducted with nine key centers in the world to finalize a questionnaire for worldwide distribution. For its second medical registry, the Center received funding from the Minwendam Medical Research Foundation to conduct a survey of patients who have been supplied with a “peripheral circulatory assist device” (alternating pressure pad mattress) at low cost from the manufacturer. The Center is to investigate the claim that the device reduces or prevents the formation of pressure sores in bedridden patients.
On April 27-28, 1984 the Center again mounted an exhibit on the history and current state of the art of therapeutic apheresis, or plasmapheresis for the Third International Symposium on Therapeutic Apheresis held at the Bond court Hotel in Cleveland, Ohio USA sponsored by the International Society for Artificial Organs, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, and the Center (ICAOT) (Artificial Organs Vol 8, No. 3, 1984, pp. 275-277). Companies that had participated in this event in previous years and that again supported the efforts were Enka AG, Extracorporeal, Inc., Kuraray Co., Ltd., Teijin, Ltd., and Toray, Ltd. The Center welcomed a new exhibitor, Gambro Lundia AB, of Lund, Sweden. The Center also compiled and distributed to meeting participants the 3rd edition of Topics in Plasmapheresis, a bibliography of references for this field. The 1984 volume added 700 new references, for a total of 1,989 through December 1983. At the Symposium the initial results from the International Apheresis Registry were reported (Artificial Organs, Vol 8, No. 3, 1984, pp. 275-277). At the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs meeting held at the Sheraton Hotel in Washington, D.C. on May 2-4, 1984 the Center participated by mounting an institutional exhibit describing the Center’s functions and purpose.
In 1984 Dr. Willem J. Kolff made a substantial contribution to the Center’s museum collection and archives (Artificial Organs, Vol 8, No. 4, 1984, pp.409-410). Among the items donated were a “nose-cone model” artificial kidney, a prototype EZS artificial kidney, a “wind-it-yourself” artificial kidney, a plaster heat mold, some Jarvik heart charts, and other charts and reprints. A very special part of the donation was a collection of his research notebooks. The Center is also very appreciative of the efforts of Dr. George Pantalos, who transported this collection from the University of Utah. At this time also Mrs. Loretto Peterson, a Cleveland resident, donated a “washtub model” artificial kidney, as well as the items associated with its use, including three sets of hand-constructed kidneys, the machine for making them, and the container used to sterilize them. She also provided the Center’s museum with a complete Drake-Willock artificial kidney, including a stainless-steel container for Kiil dialyzing membranes and a Travenol blood pump. Dr. Lazaro Gotloib of the Central Emek Hospital in Israel donated several prototypes documenting the development of his subcutaneous prosthesis for peritoneal dialysis. Stephen R. Topaz of Nova Biomedical donated a collection of artificial heart materials including a calendered silicone artificial heart, molds of hearts, photographic slides, prints, and drawings, and detailed research notes and electrocardiograms from research conducted in the 1980s.
Reprints, photographs, and artifacts were donated by Dr. Michael DeBakey, Denton A. Cooley, W. Sterling Edwards, Charles A. Hufnagel, Lester R. Sauvage, S. Adam Wesolow, and Charles Riall of Davis and Geck for the Center’s vascular graft exhibit presented at the symposium “Vascular Graft Update: Safety and Performance” sponsored by the US Food and Drug Administration, the Department of Health and Huan Services, and the American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM) and held in Williamsburg, Virginia. Donations were provided by W. L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and IMPRA, Inc. (Artificial Organs, Vol 9, No. 1, 1985, pp. 5-6).
Also, in 1984, with a grant from the Minwendam Medical Research Foundation, the Center conducted a registry on the Grant peripheral circulatory assist device, or PCAD, an alternating pressure pad mattress designed to prevent the formation of pressure sores in bedridden patients (Artificial Organs, Vol 8, No. 3, 1984, pp. 275-277). The Center’s founding and early growth were financed by a major fund-raising campaign limited to the Center’s Headquarter City, Cleveland, and by income earned through the Center’s exhibit and information services. Charles E. Spahr, Honorary Chairman of the Center’s Board of Trustees put forth the challenge offering a 50% match of all funds contributed to the Center by members of the scientific community outside of Cleveland. For every personal contribution made to the Center within the remainder of 1984, Mr. Spahr would raise the 50% match within Cleveland.
The Center participated in the 1985 annual meeting of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Atlanta, Georgia USA (Artificial Organs Vol 9, No. 3, 1985, pp. 229-230) presenting its exhibits along with its major traveling exhibit on the development of vascular grafts. Also, in that year the Center participated in an exhibit for the Ohio State Fair in Columbus showing the areas of uses of modern polymers (Artificial Organs, Vol 9, No. 4, 1985, p. 344). Materials on exhibit were several types of materials involved in the manufacture of the artificial heart, dialyzers, plasmapheresis filters, vascular grafts, heart valves, and artificial joints. In the 1984-1985 school year the Center hosted more than 1,200 visitors including near 500 students attending classes conducted in the museum. In addition to high school and college students, The Center attracted a number of professional groups including the Alpha and Omega Dental Fraternity and Harvard Business School alumnae (Artificial Organs, Vol 9, No. 2, 1985, pp. 116-118).
At the 5th World Congress of the International Society for Artificial Organs in Chicago, IL USA at the Palmer House in October 1985 ICAOT, Baxter Travenol Laboratories, and NIH’s National Heart Lung and Blood Institute collaborated on the presentation of a joint historical exhibit (Artificial Organs Vol 10, No. 1, 1986, pp.8-11). Baxter Travenol Laboratories of Deerfield, IL USA, under the supervision of Mr. Patrick McBride, provided their extensive collection of historical artificial kidney devices and oxygenators. Prototypes of the artificial kidney system developed in Sweden by Dr. Nils Alwall were also shown. Dr. Alwall presented the keynote lecture entitled “Historical Perspectives on the Development of Artificial Organs”, at the opening ceremony. Unlike Kolff’s kidney device, Alwall’s vertical drum kidney remained stationary and the dialysis fluid moved and flowed around the membrane. Both the drum and membrane were incased in a metal sleeve enabling Alwall to use positive pressure (Artificial Organs, Vol 10, No. 2, 1986, p. 85). As blood entered the membrane envelop, this outer sleeve prevented it from expanding. Later Alwall was also able to increase the surface area of his kidney device and applied not only positive pressure but negative pressure on the dialyzing solution side. Besides introducing the first negative pressure system, Dr. Alwall is credited with describing the first cannula to be used for gaining access to the patient’s blood vessels and for opening the first dialysis treatment center in 1950. Following the ISAO Congress in Chicago Dr. Nils Alwall and his wife visited the Center’s museum and facilities (Artificial Organs, Vol 10, No. 2, 1986, p.85). The description of first Kolff coil dialyzer was published in an article authored by Willem Kolff and Bruno Watschinger entitled “Further Development of a Coil Kidney: Disposable Artificial Kidney” in the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine in 1956. Working with Travenol Laboratories, Inc. the twin coil became the first commercially available disposable dialyzer. The Devices and Technology Branch of the NHLBI contributed to the chronological history of the NIH’s activities that led to the development and research on mechanical blood pumps, particularly the total artificial heart and the left ventricular assist devices. (Artificial Organs Vol 10, No. 1, 1986, pp.8-11) The contributions of the individual Directors of the Devices and Technology Branch outlined the progress over the past 30 years in blood pump and materials development. Under the able leadership and collaboration of Drs. Hastings, Hall, Dennis, Frommer, Alteri, and Watson, these devices are now accepted clinically. The exhibit from the NHLBI entitled “Mechanical Aids for the Failing Heart” included the Harmison totally implantable artificial heart, the DeBakey paracorporeal left ventricular bypass device, the early air-driven Kolff artificial heart, the Kantrowitz mechanical auxiliary ventricle, and the Jarvik 7 heart. Another entire panel was devoted to the other left ventricular assist devices and included the Pierce-Donachy system, an early version of the Novacor implantable assist system, and the LVAD developed by Dr. Bernhardt of Boston. The NHLBI’s introduction of the US Artificial Heart Program was followed by individual working exhibits with detailed pump information and descriptions from the major US contractors and blood pump developers as Novacor Inc., Abiomed, The University of Washington-Thermedics-Cleveland Clinic, Nimbus-Cleveland Clinic, Sinai Hospital of Detroit, and displays from the University of Utah. The Artificial Heart Program in Europe was represented by displays and posters from the University of Berlin (Dr. Hennig); the University of Rostock (Dr. Klinkmann); the Czechoslovakian group (Dr. Vâsků and the Austrian group under the direction of Dr. Unger. The Artificial Heart Program in Japan was represented by two groups, one from the University of Tokyo under the direction of Dr. Atsumi and the other from the National Cardiovascular Center in Osaka under the leadership of Dr. Akutsu. The ICAOT brought its entire collection and permanent exhibit devoted to historical blood pumps, the vascular graft exhibit, and its collection of currently available commercial and experimental blood pumps. The exhibit was also well represented by the major artificial organ devices for the heart, kidney, oxygenator, vascular grafts, and biomaterial applications. The ICAOT displays and the exhibit program was coordinated by Helen Kambic, Eric Olsen, and Dorothy Clewell of the ICAOT staff. At the ICAOT booth silk scarves and neckties inscribed with the Center’s logo were distributed by Ms. Ako Funakoshi and Mrs. Mieko Barnes dressed in Japanese kimonos. These gifts were prepared by the Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. of Tokyo and through the efforts of Dr. Takehiko Kudo.
In 1986 Dr. Kolff returned to the Cleveland Clinic and visited the Center (Artificial Organs, Vol 10, No. 3, 1986, pp.176-177). At the Clinic he gave a special lecture entitled “Artificial Hearts That We Can Afford”. He visited the Clinic’s Department of Artificial Organs under the leadership of Dr. Yukihiko Nosé and reviewed the circulatory assist, metabolic and immunological assist and biomaterials programs.
The Center presented an exhibit of its history of circulatory assist devices and vascular prostheses at the 12th Annual Meeting of the Society for Biomaterials and the 18th International Biomaterials Symposium in Minneapolis, Minnesota, May 28 to June 1, 1986 (Artificial Organs, Vol 10, No. 5, 1986, p. 356). The Minnesota Historical Society presented the “Lingbergh Artificial Heart”. Lindbergh’s Heart was never meant as an artificial organ but rather as an environmental apparatus in which explanted organs might be kept alive and functioning. Through the 1930s Alex Carrel, the pioneer of vascular surgery, collaborated with Lindbergh and in 1935 produced an apparatus at the Rockefeller Institute in New York City, New York, that could maintain sterile pulsatile circulation of isolated organs. The Center also took its traveling exhibit to the 32nd Annual ASAIO Meeting in Disneyland, Anaheim, California and the International Plastics Exposition, Cleveland, Ohio.
In May 1986 the Center co-sponsored with the Ajinomoto Co., Ltd. the International Symposium on Stabilized Hemoglobin at the Keio Plaza Hotel, Tokyo, Japan (Artificial Organs, Vol 11, No. 3, 1987, pp. 196-197). The objective of the symposium was to discuss the basic aspects of a stabilized hemoglobin solution, a pyridoxalated human hemoglobin-polyoxyethylene conjugate (PHP) as an oxygen-carrying solution of blood substitute. This solution was developed through the research facilities of the Central Laboratories of the Ajinomoto Co. This symposium clarified the need for accessing the specific physiologic effects of chemically modified hemoglobin solutions and outlined the steps required for clinical use of a synthetic oxygen carrier.
The Center welcomed the visit of Dr. Valeriy Shumakov, the Director of the Institute of Transplantology and Artificial Organs, Minister of Health, Moscow, USSR in 1986 (Artificial Organs, Vol 11, No. 1, 1987, p. 5). Dr. Shumakov was touring the United States in October that year under the auspices of the US-USSR Joint Artificial Heart Program. Dr. Shumakov noted the archival work of V. P. Demikhov, M.D., who developed and implanted the first total artificial heart in the Soviet Union in the mid-1930s. The Center prepared a document for the US Congress entitled “Technology Assessment on Future Developments in Life Sustaining Technologies for the Elderly” (Artificial Organs, Vol 11, No. 2, 1987, p. 86). Covering the areas of renal dialysis technologies, mechanical ventilation techniques, resuscitation support systems, nutritional support technology, and advances in antibiotics this assessment provided a guideline for future US funding and designated programs in the next decade.
In March 1987 the Center welcomed Dr. Jiro Wada, distinguished cardiac surgeon and pioneer in artificial organs (Artificial Organs, Vol 11, No, 5, 1987, pp. 434-435). Dr. Wada performed the first and only cardiac transplant at that time. He is international recognized for his sternal turn-over technique for funnel chest deformities and for the Wada-Cutter heart (hinge less) valve, which served as the prototype for the Bjork-Shiley valves. He also developed a bileaflet valve that was the early prototype of the St. Jude, or Duromedic’s heart valve. Dr. Wada donated as a permanent loan his personal collection of heart valves. The Center also welcomed Dr. Yasunaru Kawashima. Dr. Kawashima’s preliminary studies involved the evaluation of extracorporeal circulation and he later specialized in new techniques for the correction of congenital heart diseases such as the double-outlet right ventricle, single ventricle, and endocardial cushion defects. In June 1987 the Center welcomed a delegation from Japan headed by Dr. Michio Odaka evaluating the current impact of artificial organs in US research and assessing the future needs of such technology in Japan. Representatives included K. Yamada, Teijin Limited, Tokyo; M. Abe, Kawasumi Laboratories, Kanogawa; Y. Yuma, Kuraray Co., Ltd., Tokyo; H. Watanabe, Senko Medical Instrument Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Tokyo; K. Ozakei, Toray Medical Co., Ltd. Tokyo; and H. Nakajima, Medikit Co., Ltd., Tokyo.
In 1988 Dr. Pierre Galletti, M.D., Ph.D. visited the Center (Artificial Organs, Vol 12, No. 3, 1988, p. 289). A very well recognized authority in blood oxygenation, his book, Heart lung bypass, principles and techniques of extracorporeal circulation remains a classic teaching and reference tool. The Center participated in the 30th Anniversary celebration of open-heart surgery held at St. Luke’s Hospital Cleveland. On hand were Drs. C. Walton Lillehei, Earle B. Kay, and Frederick S. Cross. Kay and Cross developed a heart-lung machine called the rotating disc and performed their first operation with this device in Cleveland in January of 1956.The Center contributed components of the original Kay-Cross rotting disc oxygenator and several examples of the Cross-Jones heart valves to their exhibit.
The Center endorsed the HIMEX project. The Government of Hokkaido, in conjunction with the national government, had proposed the development of an international medical, industrial, and education complex to contribute to the benefit of mankind in the development of supplemental organ assistance. With the support of all major financial, academic, medical, industrial, and governmental organizations in Hokkaido, together with the national organization and institutions, land was secured for the venture (Artificial Organs, Vol 12, No. 2, 1988, pp.174-175). The Center presented its complimentary ties and scarves at the ISAO 6th World Congress in Munich, Germany in 1987. The Center participated in the 30th Anniversary of open-heart surgery held at St. Luke’s Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio (Artificial Organs, Vol 12, No. 3, 1988, p.289). Present were Drs. C. Walton Lillehei, Earle B. Kay, and Frederick S. Cross. Kay and Cross developed the rotating disc heart-lung machine and performed their first operation with this device in Cleveland in January 1956. The Center contributed components of the original Kay-Cross rotating disc oxygenator and several examples of the Cross-Jones heart valves to their exhibit. For the year 1987-1988 the Center fund raising appeal raised $35,500 in support of its on-going programs (Artificial Organs, Vol 12, No. 6, 1988, p.536). Acquisitions in the year included the Capiox E hollow fiber oxygenator donated by the Terumo Company of Tokyo, Japan, an early kidney-preservation machine donated by the Cleveland Clinic, and a console originally fabricated by Statham circa 1967 for Dr. M. DeBakey’s use with his left-assist pump donated by Dr. Frank Altieri with several variations of left-assist devices developed between 1968 and 1971. Various films from Dr. Teschan, the Cleveland Clinic, and Dr. Agishi were also acquired. The Center had over 1,100 visitors in the past year including a Chinese delegation representing the Chinese Medical equipment industry.
The Center received a Landé-Edwards Oxygenator (Artificial Organs, Vol 13, No. 3, 1989, p. 271). This membrane oxygenator was used for extracorporeal support and consists of a non-porous silicone rubber membrane, polycarbonate manifolds, and sealants. There is no direct blood gas interface. Unlike other plate type oxygenators, the blood path is free of any underlying obstructions or stasis producing elements. The Landé-Edwards disposable lung was commercially available through Edwards Laboratories, Santa Ana, California. A prototype of this totally disposable oxygenator was developed in 1967 by Landé and Lillehei and completion of the device was made by Edwards in 1970. Three types of heart lung machines were provided by 3M Sarns Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan including a Gibbon Heart Lung System constructed at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota; an advanced Med-Science Perfusion Console developed in Needham, Massachusetts; and an Olsen Heart Lung Console from Sarns Inc. 3M. The Gibbon-Mayo pump oxygenator is an example of a film oxygenator whereby a blood film is formed over a wire screen mesh with mild turbulence. This mixing effect of blood promotes the gas exchange capability of this type of blood film. Gibbon in the early 1950s noticed this advantage and developed his oxygenator based on this principle. The screen oxygenator was thought to cause less blood trauma compared to the bubble oxygenator. This system required a larger priming volume than bubble systems and needed a recirculation pump to maintain constant flow through the device.
In 1990 the Science Museum of Minnesota borrowed several artificial hearts and artificial heart valves from the Center’s collection for their 2-year traveling exhibit (Artificial Organs, Vol 14, No. 4, 1990, pp.316-317). “Bionics and Transplants: The World of Replacement Medicine”. The exhibit was sponsored by Medtronic as part of the company’s observance of its 40th anniversary and in honor of its founder, Earl Bakken. The two-year national tour reached nine US cities and more than one and one-half million museum visitors (Artificial Organs, Vol 16, No. 6, 1992, pp. 661-662). The exhibit was seen in The Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago, Illinois, the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Museum of Science in Boston, Massachusetts, Center of Science and Industry in Columbus, Ohio, and the Science Museum of Charlotte, North Carolina over a three-year period. The Center also loaned several items to the Cleveland Health Education Museum in Cleveland, Ohio for an exhibit on “People Parts: The History of Artificial Organs and Implants”. This exhibit was opened in January 1990 and by March over 30,000 people had viewed the exhibit.
Several items including the Jarvik-7 and artificial blood were loaned to the Kredietbank’s exhibit “Technobiotics”. The exhibit in Antwerp, Belgium ran from June 10- December 31, 1991. In addition to the Jarvik-7 the exhibit (see photos in AO article) featured an historic review of the development of pacemakers, diverse types of heart valves, a working prototype of the high-tech Utah arm, a presentation of an electronic artificial ear, advanced techniques in the treatment of complex bone fractures, vascular prostheses, artificial voice, various applications of titanium implants, etc. A large group of hearts was loaned to the organizers of the Joint Meeting of the 67th Annual Meeting of the Medical Instrument Society and the Okayama Medical Fair, Okayama, Japan. During the convention, May 28-30, 1992, more than 35,000 people viewed the exhibit. The Center provided an Exhibit at World Apheresis Association Meeting in Houston, Texas in 1994.
In 1996 the Center was leading a marginal existence for some time and the collection had been struggling to secure a sustainable status. Consideration was given to consolidate the Center’s collection and its mission into another organization, preferably Cleveland-based. The Center, with the help of the Cleveland Foundation, secured a planning consultant, Max Stark, to assist it in a pre-strategic planning exploration of feasible approaches to securing the future for the collection. Local leaders were consulted as well as others including from outside the city. The major strengths and weaknesses of the Center’s organization were assessed but critical at that time was the lack of a permanent site for the display of the collection and very limited financial support and the general lack of interest within the present Cleveland museums to bring the Center’s collection under its roof and preservation of artifacts. The options developed indicated that a free-standing museum or an industry supported traveling exhibit were not promising. Some options were identified that would require further efforts, such as establishing an endowment of several hundred thousand dollars, but at that time the interest was definite in keeping the collection in Cleveland and more important in keeping the collection in tact somewhere.
In 1999 the Center’s Museum was moved to Houston, Texas and officially opened in November 2002 at the Cullen Pavilion of the original Memorial Hermann Hospital (Artificial Organs, Vol 27, No. 9, 2003, pp. 821-832). The ICMT (International Center for Medical Technologies) Museum for Artificial Organs was completed after phase I, II, and III expansions of the exhibit booths. At that time approximately 250 of various types of artificial organ hardware were exhibited. Dr. Steven Phillips was elected as the ICMT museum director. Acknowledgement for support is given to the Japan Foundation for Artificial Organs, Dr. Mitsuru Suzuki, Mr. Seigo Arai, and others that made this possible.
After the passing of Dr. Nosé in 2011, the Center’s collection and all additions made to it at ICMT were placed into storage.