Important Milestones

Milestones in the Development and Clinical Applications of Artificial Organ Technologies & Transplantation

Explore the history of artificial organ technologies and transplantation. Jump to a specific section using the buttons. 

Have an addition to our timeline? Share your submission here!

Milestones 1900 – 1949

Milestones 1950 – 1959

Milestones 1960 – 1969

Milestones 1970 – 1979

Milestones 1980 – 1999

Milestones 2000 – present

Milestones Through 1900

Milestones in the Development and Clinical Applications of Artificial Organ Technologies & Transplantation

1000 BC

Priests in ancient Egypt applied bloodletting to treat many diseases

600 BC

The use of autogenous skin flaps to replace missing noses was conceived in third century, sainted physicians Cosmos and Damien envisioned complex transplants such as an entire leg as depicted in paintings

500 BC

Bloodletting spread to Greece and the ancient world

Medieval Times

Bloodletting was predominantly used by the barber surgeon


Tagliacozzi and other pioneering plastic surgeons were successful at autogenous skin flap replacement surgeries

Early 1700s

Bloodletting reached its height of popularity

Hunter transplanted human teeth and autotransplanted cock’s spurs into their combs


Jallabert “electrized” stroke patients and improved hand functions


LeGallois conceptualized artificial blood oxygenation


Brown-Sequard obtained “red” blood by whipping “black” blood; the bubble oxygenator was devised based on this bubbling oxygenation theory


Graham discovered the principal of dialysis


Reverdin discovered that small, thin grafts would heal; soon thereafter extensive experiences with both autografts and homografts was accumulated


Pollock described a set of successful autografts while on the same patient’s wound homografts from donors disappeared


Fry and Gruber oxygenator operated on the principal of rotation on a Cylinder


First hip prosthesis made of ivory


Jacobj described a complex organ perfusion apparatus that relied on donor lungs for gas exchange


Dӧrfler and Jaboulay introduced the full-thickness blood vessel suturing technique


Metchnikoff proposed the use of antiserum to mitigate cellular immunity