2000 – Present

Milestones in the Development and Clinical Applications of Artificial Organ Technologies & Transplantation


Japanese New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization Project initiated on: An implantable artificial heart system toward clinical applications (5-year project).


ICAOT museum and artifacts integrated into the International Center for Medical Technologies (ICMT) at the Cullen Pavilion of the Hermann Hospital in Houston, Texas

Implantation of the AbioCor TAH, the first totally implantable, electrically-powered self-contained artificial heart, in the patient Robert Tools

US FDA approved the Thoratec Corp. HeartMate left ventricular assist device for permanent use

US FDA approved first real time continuous glucose monitor from Cygna Inc. that provided a stream of glucose readings to the patient


Schima and Vollkron perform the first clinical study on preload sensitive physiologically responsive control in Vienna


The Ventr-Assist, the first ventricular assist system with an hydrodynamically levitated rotor, is first implanted in Melbourne, Australia


ISAO transitioned from a Society based on individual members into the International Federation for Artificial Organs (IFAO). Its 3 founding societies were the American society for Artificial Internal Organs (ASAIO), the European Society for Artificial Organs (ESAO), and the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs (JSAO)

First clinical trial of an implantable, magnetically levitated centrifugal blood pump (DuraHeart) began

Matt Nagle, a tetraplegic, became the first to be implanted with a Utah intracortical electrode array as part of the original BrainGate clinical trial run by Cyberkinetics, Inc. This neural implant was used to decode intent directly from his motor cortex to control a computer cursor and robotic devices

The first fully magnetically levitated ventricular assist device –Duraheart- which had been developed by T.Akamatsu and Terumo, is implanted in Bad Oynhausen, Germany

FDA approves Medtronic’s Guardian continuous glucose monitor that warns users when their blood sugar hits dangerous levels

Dexcom introduces its first real-time continuous glucose monitor intended to be used for up to 72 hours


Devauchelle, Lengele and Dubernard performed the first partial face transplant on a living human


Medtronic introduced the first integrated insulin pump and continuous glucose monitor system, a milestone toward the development of an artificial pancreas

Japanese New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization Project: Research and development of myocardial regeneration therapy (4-year project)

Wieselthaler implants the Heartware-HVAD (pump with a hydromagnetically levitated rotor) in Vienna


Edwards Sapien valve and CoreValve received CE mark as the first Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) products

Dexcom’s Seven CGM (Continuous Glucose Monitor) approved for up to seven days of use

Cleveland Clinic Team led by Siemionow performed the world’s first near total facial transplant including bones, muscle, skin, blood vessels and nerves

Abbott launched its Free Style Navigator continuous glucose monitor with a sensor life of up to five days


Team of Spanish doctors performed the first full face transplant


Carmat Artificial Heart implanted in George Pompidou European Hospital in Paris

President Obama signs bipartisan law allowing HIV positive organ transplants for HIV positive patients

Medtronic introduces its second generation integrated insulin pump/continuous glucose monitor that when blood sugar levels fall to low levels the pump stops pumping for two hours


The Thoratec HM-III, a pump with fully magnetically levitated rotor and the control system in the pump itself is implanted by Schmitto in Hannover and Zimpfer in Vienna


Dexcom launches its G5 Mobile, the first device that enables user to message glucose levels via s smartphone


Abbott launches it’s Free Style Libre Pro professional device with a lifespan of up to 14 days


Medtronic receives FDA approval for its Guardian Sensor 3 that automates insulin delivery via a hybrid closed loop system with its Mini Med 670G insulin pump

Abbott launches its Free Style Libre which was factory calibrated and not requiring finger stick testing


The US Department of Labor extends Family Medical Leave (FMLA) protection to living kideny donors, protecting their jobs.


President Trump signs a bipartisan executive order on advancing American Kidney Health; Patient consumer care choice and innovations, like the artificial kidney, are accelerated


President Trump signs a bipartisan law establishing lifetime immunosuppressive drug coverage for kidney transplant patients.


At New York University Langone Health under the leadership of Dr. Robert Montgomery a genetically modified pig kidney from Revivicor was attached to a braindead human. It generated appropriate urine output without any signs of rejection and returned the recipient’s creatinine to normal levels for 54 hours.


First genetically modified pig heart, provided by Revivicor, was implanted at the University of Maryland Medical Center under the leadership of Drs. Bartley Griffith and Muhammad Mohiuddin into David Bennett. He survived 2 months.

First non-biological artificial cornea that does not require co-implantation with a donor cornea was approved for use in China.

Milestones Through 1900

Milestones 1900 - 1949

Milestones 1950 - 1959

Milestones 1960 - 1969

Milestones 1970 - 1979

Milestones 1980 - 1999

Milestones 2000 - present