1900 – 1949

Milestones in the Development and Clinical Applications of Artificial Organ Technologies & Transplantation


Hedon discussed plasmapheresis where he auto transfused body-own erythrocytes into rabbits

Ullmann performed first successful kidney transplant, a dog autotransplant and a dog-to-goat xenograft


Ehrlich studied transplantation of tumors in mice without determining the response to transplants of normal tissue

Jensen perceived that that the failure of tumor homografts was an immune reaction


Guthrie advocated cooling to protect donor organs before transplantation


Jaboulay performed the first two renal transplants in humans using a pig donor for one and a goat donor for the other


Fleig reported first therapeutic approach of apheresis with autotransfusions with washed blood cells in toxemia and hetero transfusions in anemia


Schӧne, considered the first transplantation immunologist, determined that homografts always failed and that subsequent grafts from the same donor failed more rapidly than the first

Carrel is awarded Nobel Prize for originating both vascular suturing and its use in organ transplantation


Abel, Rowntree, and Turner described the principle of hemodialysis, used cellulose tubes, hirudin for anticoagulation in dogs


Abel, Rowntree, and Turner studied the effect of plasma removal in dogs and created the term “plasmapheresis”

Murphy showed that resistance to tumor homografts was dependent on  the lymphoid system


Richards and Drinker reported on the use of a screen oxygenator for perfusion of isolated organs


McLean and Howell discovered the anti-coagulant heparin


Carrel introduced tissue culture


Haas performed the first clinical hemodialysis on 5 patients using a modification of the Hopkins artificial kidney


Lim and Necheles used heparin as an anticoagulant

Gilbert, Tzanck, and Negroni described plasmapheresis applied in humans 


Necheles developed the first “sandwich” artificial kidney using a biological membrane consisting of calves’ peritoneal membrane and dialyzes dogs


Dale and Schuster described a double perfusion pump for pulmonary and systemic circulation; Gibbon subsequently uses this pump for early laboratory development of a heart-lung apparatus


Brukhonenko and Tchetchuline maintained temporary function of guillotined dogs’ heads using donor lungs for gas exchange and a bellows-type pump for blood circulation


Loeb determined that the strength and timing of rejection of skin in rats was governed by the extent of genetic disparity of donor and recipient homograft and eventually that the lymphocyte was involved


Lindbergh’s pump used for preservation of organs for as long as 3 weeks


Voronoy performed the first human-to-human kidney transplant


DeBakey described a dual-roller pump and a bellows-type pump for transfusion of blood; these devices subsequently became the most widely used blood pumps for clinical cardiopulmonary bypass and hemodialysis


Thalhimer introduced cellulose tubing for hemodialysis

Demikhov used an extracorporeal assist device for 5.5 hours to substitute for the cardiac function of a dog

Gibbon reported successful total cardiopulmonary bypass in experimental animals using a vertical rotating cylinder oxygenator


Thalheimer performed the first hemodialysis of a dog using cellophane membrane and heparin anticoagulation

Gross performed the first successful ligation of a patent ductus arteriosis


Murray used for the first time heparin in human patients


Kolff develops rotating drum artificial kidney and applies it clinically in acute renal failure patients


Kolff and Berk observed blood oxygenation through cellophane membranes in their artificial kidney

Tui, Bartter, Wright, and Holt were first to carry out plasma separation using centrifuges

1945 - 1946

Alwall develops the first stationary drum artificial kidney and the first artificial ultrafiltration kidney capable of negative pressure and hydrostatic ultrafiltration

Murray develops a stationary drum artificial kidney


Kolff’s first surviving patient with his artificial kidney was Mrs. Schaffstadt

 Fine and Associates reported successful peritoneal irrigation in a patient with severe anuria who survived after 4 days of continuous peritoneal lavage


Bjӧrk extended the limit of circulatory arrest in experimental animals by perfusion of the brain with blood oxygenated in a rotating disk oxygenator

Thomas introduced silicone as a defoaming agent for blood

Weiner envisioned neural prosthesis

Sarnoff and colleagues demonstrated maintaining adequate ventilation with percutaneous and transcutaneous electrodes

Olson at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in collaboration with Kolff built multiple re-designed rotating drum artificial kidneys, the Kolff-Brigham Dialysis Machine, and shipped around the world


Bakken founded Medtronic as a medical equipment repair shop

Jongbloed oxygenated blood in rotating plastic spirals

Medawar and Billingham showed that skin grafting between chimeric bovine fraternal twins was the key to understanding tolerance

Skeggs and Leonard developed the first practical flat-plate dialyzer and used it clinically

Sewall and Glenn built a precursor to the modern artificial heart pump and successfully bypassed the heart of a dog for over one hour

Milestones Through 1900

Milestones 1900 - 1949

Milestones 1950 - 1959

Milestones 1960 - 1969

Milestones 1970 - 1979

Milestones 1980 - 1999

Milestones 2000 - present