1980 – 1999

Milestones in the Development and Clinical Applications of Artificial Organ Technologies & Transplantation


Golding and Nosé achieved an alive, awake animal 34-day survival with chronic non-pulsatile blood flow

Agishi and Associates and Malchesky and Associates reported on membrane plasma separation and filtration referred to as double filtration or cascade filtration

Malchesky and Associates reported on cryofiltration (plasma separation and cooling with filtration in the cold without plasma replacement products) to treat various diseases

Paganini described continuous arterial venous hemofiltration for acute renal failure


The first commercially available microporous hollow fiber oxygenator (Capiox) with a microporous hollow fiber was developed by the Terumo Corporation. In that year, the Cleveland Clinic performed 4,000 procedures with this device and soon replaced 60% of the disposable membrane oxygenators in the USA. 

Thompson performed first plasma exchange for familial hypercholesterolemia


DeVries performed the first permanent total with a Jarvik-7 artificial heart implant in Barney Clark

Infusaid intravascular and intrathecal drug infusion pump introduced

Kolobow described extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal


US Congress passed the National Transplant Act to formalize the distribution of organs at the national level

Portner developed an electrically-powered implantable left ventricular assist system, the Novacor LVAS, that was successfully applied clinically in patient Robert St. Laurent

Baby Fae, a dying infant, lived 21 days with a baboon heart


Nosé and Associates reported on thermofiltration (plasma separation with warming and filtration without plasma replacement products) for treating lipid abnormalities

Thoma, Holle and colleagues, first implantation of a multichannel (8-channel) implant, “carousel-stimulation”, resolves muscular fatigue problems, enables physiological respiration volume and rate


Sigwart and Puel performed first implantation of a stent in human coronary arteries

Demetriou and Associates describe an artificial liver using porcine Hepatocytes

First successful bridge to transplant with a Total Artificial Heart, performed by the Group of Ernst Wolner in Vienna


Wampler’s Hemopump (an intra-arterial axial-flow pump) was first used in a 61-year old man

United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) established

In the Austrian Alps a Symposium on Rotary Blood Pumps is organized by the Vienna Group, which becomes the starting point of the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps (ISRBP), now International Society for Mechanical Circulatory Support (ISMCS)


Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) formed and created the ELSO registry

Anderson reported the first successful V-V ECMO treatment with a double lumen catheter

Starzl introduced tacrolimus as an immunosuppressant in organ transplantation


First bridge to transplant in a child with the Berlin Heart-Excor in Berlin.


Parodi performed first transfemoral intraluminal stent-graft implantation for abdominal aortic aneurysms


Benabid reported effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus to treat Parkinson’s disease

Dake performed transluminal placement of endovascular stent grafts for the treatment of descending thoracic aortic-aneurysms

Belser and Associates reported on the use of the University of Wisconsin solution in clinical transplantation


Strazl and Associates discovered that donor leukocyte chimerism was present in patients who had maintained successful kidney or liver graft for up to three decades

The group of Loisance in Paris discharges the first patient with mechanical cardiac support  – the Novacor portable System – to home.


US FDA approves Thermo Cardiosystems HeartMate left ventricular assist device for bridge to transplantation


Japanese New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization Project initiated on: An implantable artificial heart system (5-year project)


Bakey performed the first intraoperative human brain-to-computer interface in a patient with spinal cord injury


Hetzer, Noon, and DeBakey performed first clinical application of axial-flow Pump

The Micromed-DeBakey axial ventricular assist device is implanted clinically in Berlin and Vienna.


FDA approved the first professional continuous glucose monitor

ICAOT museum and historical artifacts moved to Houston, Texas

First use of an implantable magnetically suspended axial flow left ventricular assist device (Incor)

Stertzer and Fuente performed the first coronary angioplasty with a drug delivered stent system

The Arrows Lionheart, a pulsatile cardiac assist system with transcutaneous wireless energy transfer and thus eliminated percutaneous wires is first implanted in Bad Oynhausen, Germany.

In Vienna, the first patient with an implanted rotary pump (Micromed) is discharged  to home

FDA approves first professional continuous glucose monitor from Medtronic that provides three days for gluecose data meant for a physician 

Milestones Through 1900

Milestones 1900 - 1949

Milestones 1950 - 1959

Milestones 1960 - 1969

Milestones 1970 - 1979

Milestones 1980 - 1999

Milestones 2000 - present