1970 – 1979

Milestones in the Development and Clinical Applications of Artificial Organ Technologies & Transplantation


Hirose reported on a disposable version of the screen oxygenator that was commercially available and known as the Everett-Hirose oxygenator

White transplanted the head of a monkey to another monkey using deep hypothermia and immunosuppressive drugs; the grafted heads were able to perform functions


Kolobow developed a coil-type membrane oxygenator using silicone membrane for clinical use

Silicone membrane oxygenators reported by Douglas and Associates and Wildevuur and others were commercialized by Travenol Laboratories

Malchesky and Nosé reported on emulsions of fluorocarbon of 3 micron or less injected into dogs; proposed the use of a centrifugal power separator for microemboli separation in an oxygenator design

Kantrowitz implanted the dynamic aortic patch in a patient with terminal heart failure that was discharged to home

The American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) co-founder Shep Glaser performs his dialysis in front of the US Congress.


US Congress approved Medicare reimbursement for chronic renal failure patients, noting it as a bridge to transplantation.

Eiseman and Spencer introduced porous tetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) as a gas transfer membrane

Bramson plate-type membrane oxygenator became commercially available through Cutter Laboratories

Hill, O’Brien and Associates reported the first successful treatment of adult respiratory distress with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO)

Salyer and Nosé reported on the development of the Monsanto microporous hollow fiber membrane oxygenator that leaked plasma; considered this type of hydrophobic membrane effective for plasma separation


House began clinical trials for the single-channel cochlear implant with five adults

Tenckhoff designed an indwelling silicone rubber catheter with Dacron cuffs for intermittent peritoneal dialysis for long-term therapy for renal failure

Vidal coined the term “Brain-Computer Interface” in his publication “Toward direct brain-computer communication”

President Nixon signs bipartisan law creating national dialysis care. 


Malchesky and Nosé introduced the concept of the use of biological reactors (i.e. microorganisms) as artificial organs


Hosobuchi and Mazars separately reported chronic thalamic stimulation in human patients for control of pain


Bartlett, Gazzaniga, and Associates described the first neonatal ECMO survival case


Dobelle began clinical trials of artificial vision for the blind by connecting a television camera to the visual cortex


Yamazaki and Associates and Castino and Associates at the Cleveland Clinic reported on membrane plasma separation

Borel reported on immunosuppressive qualities of cyclosporine

US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) begins regulating medical devices seeking to assure safety and effectiveness for such devices


First meeting of the International Society for Artificial Organs (ISAO) was held in Tokyo, Japan

 First issue of Artificial Organs was circulated and becomes the official journal of the newly established ISAO

 Malchesky and Associates reported on membranes containing sorbents for blood detoxification

 Malchesky and Nosé reported on a silicone rubber membrane oxygenator with a folded design produced by Medtronic

 First surgical implant with a bileaflet heart valve developed by Nicoloff was carried out

 Gruentzig performed the first percutaneous coronary angioplasty on a patient with an 80% stenosis of the left descending artery


Clark implanted first multi-electrode cochlear implant hearing prosthesis; it becomes the first successful commercialized multichannel cochlear implant

 Glӧckner and Sieberth reported on plasma separation with hollow fiber modules

Malchesky and Associates reported on membrane plasma filtration with multiple sorbents for hepatic support

Popovich, Moncrief, and Nolph described continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)


International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation opened in Cleveland, Ohio

Bileaflet heart valves were introduced

Calne used cyclosporine as a single agent in treatment of human kidney recipients

Kramer described continuous arterial venous hemofiltration

Milestones Through 1900

Milestones 1900 - 1949

Milestones 1950 - 1959

Milestones 1960 - 1969

Milestones 1970 - 1979

Milestones 1980 - 1999

Milestones 2000 - present