1960 – 1969

Milestones in the Development and Clinical Applications of Artificial Organ Technologies & Transplantation


Scribner, Quinton, and Dillard introduced the arteriovenous shunt allowing chronic hemodialysis

Hamburger and Küss performed successful kidney transplants in nontwin recipients conditioned by total body irradiation

Kantrowitz reported on functional electrical stimulation on leg extension in dogs and was first to demonstrate standing in paraplegia

Stewart develops the first hollow fiber dialyzer

Starr performs the first successful intracardiac prosthetic valve operations

Kiil develops the Kiil dialyzer, boards sandwiching two Cuprophan membrane sheets


Charnley pioneered hip replacement; he goes on to perfect the operation and introduced positive-pressure laminar airflow operating rooms and clean-air-exhaust body suits

Cooley and Beall proposed the use of a commercially available disposable bubble oxygenator

Bodell introduced the capillary-type oxygenator using thin-walled silicone rubber

Japanese Society for Artificial Organs founded

Kylstra and associates reported on keeping mice alive 8 hours by having them breathe a salt solution equilibrated with oxygen

Cimino and Brescia developed the subcutaneous arterio-venous fistula for chronic hemodialysis

Murray performed the first successful kidney transplant in unrelated humans


Mikami, Mito, and Nosé performed the first clinical liver support using tissue slices

Kolobow and Bowman introduced a coil-type silicone membrane oxygenator with the blood flow across the flat tubing parallel to the axis of the cylinder and pure humidified oxygen passed through the silicone rubber reinforced with nylon knit

Crawford and DeBakey implanted the first clinical left ventricular assist device (LVAD) developed by Liotta and Hall; patient survived 4 days but did not recover

DeBakey proposed that the US federal government support an organized program to develop a total artificial heart

Starzl described a new immunosuppressive protocol that allowed greater than 70% 1-year renal graft survival in patients

Collins and Associates advocated, and it became the standard that pretransplant infusion of cold solution into the renal artery of donor kidneys or for procurement of multiple organs in situ cooling by infusion of cold solution in the aorta

Woodruff and Associates reported that antilymphocyte serum (ALS) was remarkably effective in extending skin allograft survival in rodent models

Djourno, Kayser, and Eyriès reported on cochlear implants and inductive coupling of implants for nerve stimulation


Dotter and Judkins first described the concept of coronary angioplasty and the catheter-delivered stent

US National Institutes of Health started the Artificial Heart Program led initially by Hastings with the goal of putting an artificial heart into a human patient by the end of the decade

Terasaki and McClelland developed a microcytotoxicity assay for typing


First commercial glucose test strip introduced

Bramson and Associates reported on the construction of a plate-type membrane oxygenator with an integral heat exchanger

Wilson and Associates reported on the use of capillary tubes for the blood compartment with oxygen flow outside the capillary tubes which resulted in a progressive deterioration of performance

Melzack and Wall sketched out the “gate” theory of pain on a napkin

The Japan Society for Transplantation was founded

Howlett and Associates reported on an oxygenator utilizing a fluid fluorocarbon


DeBakey implanted an external heart pump (LVAD) made by Liota; patient, Ms. Vasquez, kept alive for 10 days and became the first patient to survive with an artificial ventricular assist device

Clark and Gollan reported survival in mice injected with small quantities of fluorocarbon

Medawar received the Nobel Prize for his work on induction of chimerism and to induce tolerance to prevent graft rejection

Starzl was first to use antilymphocyte serum (ALS) clinically for kidney allografts

Glen and colleagues first treated a patient with chronic ventilatory failure with an RF-powered implant

Chang reported on artificial cells

Kantrowitz successfully implanted in a patient an aortic U-shaped auxiliary ventricle intended as destination therapy for congestive heart failure

Roberts reported on regenerating dialysate using the sorbents zirconium phosphate, hydrated zirconium oxide, and carbon with urease; system was commercialized in 1973 as the REDY machine


Zingg reported on the principle of a “capillary” lung

Mortimer and Shealy reported inhibition of pain by dorsal column spinal cord

Greenwalt isolated lymphocytes and anti-lymphocyte globulins by centrifuging blood in double bags

Speiser reported on plasmapheresis in both healthy and sick patients and established a list of indications for plasmapheresis

First clinical implant of intra-aortic balloon pump was performed by Kantrowitz and Phillips

Belzer and Associates showed that ex vivo perfusion extended preservation of kidneys for 2-3 days

Terasaki started the first organ sharing organization

Starzl performed first successful human liver transplant

Barnard performs the first human cardiac transplant

Stewart performs the first clinical use of the capillary fiber artificial kidney


Landé-Edwards and GE-Pierce (co-polymer of silicone and polycarbonate) plate-type membrane oxygenators were introduced commercially available 

Judson and his IBM Associates developed the closed centrifuge which allowed the separation of plasma from the cellular components in discontinuous and later in continuous blood flow

Harvard ad hoc committee on brain death published its recommendation that irreversible loss of brain function be accepted as death  

 Brindley reported on visual prosthesis and sacral anterior root stimulator for bladder control


Cooley performed the first successful clinical implant of a total artificial heart as a bridge to transplantation

Reynolds reported stimulation-produced analgesia using electrodes implanted in the periaqueductal gray matter in rats


The American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) is founded in New York by kidney patients.

Milestones Through 1900

Milestones 1900 - 1949

Milestones 1950 - 1959

Milestones 1960 - 1969

Milestones 1970 - 1979

Milestones 1980 - 1999

Milestones 2000 - present